PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG): Business Model Canvas (2023)

PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG): Business Model Canvas

  • Home
  • Key Partnerships
  • Key Activities
  • Key Resources
  • Value Propositions
  • Customer Relationships
  • Channels
  • Customer Segments
  • Cost Structure
  • Revenue Streams


As the world economy continues to grow, so does the demand for high-quality specialty chemicals. The global specialty chemicals market size was valued at $610 billion in 2020, and it is projected to reach $960 billion by 2028, growing at a CAGR of 5.7% from 2021 to 2028. With the rising demand for advanced coatings, paints, and specialty materials, companies like PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) are playing a vital role in meeting the diverse needs of customers across various industries.

PPG is a leading global specialty chemical company that offers a wide range of sustainable and innovative solutions to customers worldwide. Its diversified product and service portfolio, strong brand recognition, and global network of manufacturing facilities, distribution channels, and customer support services have helped it become a key player in the industry.

In this blog post, we will delve into PPG's business model canvas, exploring its key activities, partners, resources, channels, customer segments, cost structure, and revenue streams. We will also discuss the company's value proposition and the importance of its mission to deliver sustainable and innovative solutions that meet customer needs and reduce environmental impact.

  • Global specialty chemicals market size was valued at $610 billion in 2020
  • The market is projected to reach $960 billion by 2028, growing at a CAGR of 5.7% from 2021 to 2028
  • PPG Industries, Inc. is a leading global specialty chemical company

Through this blog post, you will gain a deeper understanding of PPG's business model and its significance in the specialty chemicals industry. Let's dive in!

Key Partnerships

  • Suppliers: PPG relies on suppliers for raw materials like chemicals and pigments. The company has established strong partnerships with reliable suppliers to ensure the quality, consistency, and timely delivery of these materials.
  • Manufacturing Partners: PPG has manufacturing partnerships with companies that provide it with access to certain technologies or production capabilities that PPG may not have. These partnerships allow PPG to expand its product offerings and improve its production efficiency.
  • Distributors: PPG has partnerships with distributors who help in getting its products to market. These partnerships help in expanding the company's reach and ensuring its products are available to customers in different regions.
  • Research and Development Partners: PPG works with other companies and academic institutions to develop new coating technologies and products. These partnerships enable the company to innovate and stay ahead of its competitors in the market.
  • Customers: PPG has strong relationships with its customers, including automotive manufacturers, airlines, builders, and industrial clients. These customers provide PPG with valuable feedback on its products, which helps the company to continuously improve quality and tailor its products according to the different industry needs.

Overall, PPG values long-term relationships with its partners that are built on mutual trust, respect, and shared objectives. These partnerships strengthen the company's position in the coatings industry, contributing to its sustained growth and success.

Key Activities

Research and Development: PPG Industries invests heavily in research and development (R&D) to develop new and innovative products, improve existing products and processes, and stay ahead of the competition. This includes conducting market research, analyzing customer feedback, developing and testing new formulations, and seeking new raw materials and production methods.Manufacturing: PPG Industries operates a large number of manufacturing facilities worldwide that produce a diverse range of products, including coatings, paints, adhesives, and sealants. The company's manufacturing process involves mixing raw materials, testing for quality, applying coatings or paints to substrates, and ensuring that the final product meets customer specifications.Sales and Marketing: PPG Industries employs a global network of sales and marketing professionals to promote and sell its products. Key activities in this area include identifying potential customers, engaging with existing customers to understand their needs, developing marketing materials and campaigns, negotiating contracts, and providing technical support and training to customers.Supply Chain Management: PPG Industries manages a complex global supply chain that includes sourcing raw materials, managing transportation and logistics, and working with suppliers to ensure that they meet PPG's quality and sustainability standards. Key activities in this area include negotiating contracts with suppliers, monitoring supplier performance, managing inventory levels, and ensuring on-time delivery of raw materials and finished products.Customer Service: PPG Industries places a strong emphasis on customer service and support, including providing technical assistance, troubleshooting, and warranty support to customers. Key activities in this area include answering customer inquiries, resolving complaints and issues, and providing training and education to customers to ensure that they get the most out of PPG's products.Corporate Social Responsibility: PPG Industries is committed to operating in a socially responsible and sustainable manner. The company's key activities in this area include developing and implementing eco-friendly products and processes, reducing waste and emissions, supporting community initiatives, and promoting diversity and inclusion within the company and in the communities where it operates.

Key Resources

  • Raw Materials: One of the most critical resources for PPG is raw materials, such as pigments, resins, solvents, and other chemicals. PPG relies on a vast network of suppliers across the globe to procure high-quality raw materials for its manufacturing processes.
  • Physical Assets: PPG owns and leases a significant number of physical assets, including manufacturing facilities, research and development laboratories, warehouses, and distribution centers. These assets facilitate the production, testing, and distribution of the company's products.
  • Human Resources: PPG employs a highly skilled workforce with expertise in various fields, including chemistry, engineering, marketing, sales, and customer service. The company relies on its employees' knowledge and experience to develop innovative products, build relationships with customers, and maintain operational efficiency.
  • Intellectual Property: PPG invests heavily in research and development to create new and innovative products. The company holds a vast portfolio of patents, trademarks, and trade secrets that provide a competitive advantage and generate revenue through licensing agreements.
  • Brand Reputation: PPG has established a strong brand reputation over its 135-year history. The company has built a reputation for quality, reliability, and innovation, which has helped it win customer loyalty and gain entry into new markets.
  • Financial Resources: PPG has access to significant financial resources, including cash reserves, lines of credit, and other financial instruments. These resources help the company fund research and development, invest in new technology, and expand into new markets.

By leveraging these key resources, PPG has been able to build a sustainable competitive advantage in the highly competitive coatings and specialty materials industry.

Value Propositions

  • High-quality products: PPG Industries, Inc. prides itself on providing high-quality products to its customers. We use state-of-the-art technology and materials to ensure that our products are of the highest standard.
  • Customer-centric approach: We believe in putting our customers first. We listen to their needs and feedback to create products that meet their requirements. We are committed to providing unparalleled service and support to our customers.
  • Innovation: PPG Industries, Inc. is constantly innovating to stay ahead of the competition. We invest heavily in research and development to improve our products and processes. Our innovative solutions help our customers achieve their goals and stay competitive in their industries.
  • Sustainability: We are committed to sustainability in all aspects of our business. From the materials we use to the processes we employ, we strive to be environmentally responsible. We are dedicated to reducing our carbon footprint and minimizing waste.
  • Global reach: PPG Industries, Inc. has a global presence, with operations in over 70 countries. Our customers benefit from our extensive network and expertise in diverse markets. We understand the unique challenges of different regions and are able to provide tailored solutions to meet their specific needs.

Overall, PPG Industries, Inc. offers high-quality, innovative, and sustainable products and services, with a customer-centric approach and a global reach. We are committed to helping our customers achieve their goals and remain competitive in their industries.

Customer Relationships

PPG Industries, Inc. values building and maintaining strong relationships with its customers by providing exceptional customer service and support throughout the buying process and beyond. The company understands that developing strong customer relationships plays a significant role in customer satisfaction and loyalty, which ultimately drives revenue growth.

Personalized Communication: PPG Industries places great importance on timely, friendly and personalized communication with its customers. The company's salesforce is trained to listen actively to its customer's needs and provide relevant information to meet their demands. Additionally, PPG has a dedicated team to respond to inquiries and complaints promptly and effectively.

Customer Service and Support: PPG Industries prioritizes providing excellent customer service and support to its customers. The company has enabled its customers to have access to multiple support channels, including telephone communication, online chat, and email support to ensure that any questions, concerns or feedback are efficiently addressed.

Long-term Relationships: PPG Industries seeks to build long-term relationships with its customers, as it values repeat business and customer loyalty. The company develops an understanding of its customer's businesses, so it can provide customized solutions that meet their specific needs. PPG's commitment to customer-focused solutions reinforces their core belief, that the success of its customers is linked directly to the success of the company.

Customer-Focused Training: PPG Industries understands the value of being customer-focused and invests heavily in its employees' training to ensure that they understand the importance of building strong customer relationships. New hire training emphasizes showing the customers that the company is dedicated to helping them succeed, ensuring they feel valued and respected, and go the extra mile to exceed their expectations.

  • Key activities under Customer Relationship:
    • Developing personalized communication
    • Providing customer service and support
    • Building long-term relationships
    • Customer-focused training


PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) utilizes multiple channels to reach its customers and grow its business. The following are the primary channels utilized by the company:1. Direct Sales: PPG employs a direct sales force of over 3,000 professionals who market and sell the company's products to customers. This channel is critical as it enables PPG to have direct contact with customers, allowing the company to understand and meet their specific needs and requirements. 2. Distributors: PPG also uses distributors who sell the company's products to end-users. This allows PPG to reach a broader customer base and increase its sales volume. Additionally, distributors provide a level of local support and expertise that can be beneficial to end-users.3. Retail: PPG products are sold in retail stores such as Home Depot and Lowes, making its products more accessible to customers. This channel is essential as it helps PPG reach the Do-It-Yourself (DIY) market.4. E-commerce: PPG has an online store where customers can purchase its products. The e-commerce channel enables PPG to provide a convenient and accessible way for customers to buy its products. Additionally, this channel allows PPG to manage its inventory, order flow, and customer service efficiently.5. Third-Party Online Retailers: PPG products are also sold on third-party online retailers such as Amazon and eBay. This channel enables PPG to reach a broader customer base and increase its sales volume while also providing a convenient way for customers to purchase PPG products.In summary, PPG Industries, Inc. uses multiple channels to reach its customers and increase its sales revenue. Each channel plays a significant role in helping the company expand its business and improve its customer service.

Customer Segments

PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) caters to various customer segments across the globe. Some of the key customers segments PPG serves include:

  • Automotive OEMs: PPG provides top-notch coatings and paints to Automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) worldwide. With a focus on innovation, PPG has established itself as a leading supplier to the automotive industry.
  • Architectural Coatings: PPG offers a wide range of architectural coatings to contractors, architects, and homeowners. With a range of colors and coatings, PPG helps homeowners and architects make a statement with the building designs.
  • Aerospace and Defense: PPG’s expertise extends to the aerospace sector where it offers high-quality paints, coatings, and sealants to cater to the demanding needs of the aerospace industry. PPG is an approved supplier to many aerospace and defense companies.
  • Industrial Coatings: PPG is a major supplier of industrial coatings to the industrial OEM and protective coatings markets. PPG has a broad base of industrial customers who rely on the company’s expertise in coatings to keep their assets in good condition.
  • Packaging and Consumer Goods: PPG offers coatings and inks to the packaging and consumer goods industry. Whether it’s a can of soda or a bag of chips, PPG coatings can be found on consumer goods worldwide.

PPG’s customer segments are diverse and the company offers tailor-made solutions to meet the unique needs of each segment. PPG’s wide range of products and services serve to meet the needs of customers wherever they may be on the planet.

Cost Structure

  • Raw Material Costs: PPG Industries, Inc. incurs costs for the raw materials used to manufacture its products. It sources chemicals, resins, and other materials to produce its coatings, paints, and specialty materials. The company aims to optimize its supply chain to control raw material costs.
  • Manufacturing Costs: PPG Industries, Inc. incurs costs associated with the manufacturing process, including labor, equipment, utilities, and maintenance expenses. It aims to increase operational efficiency to reduce manufacturing costs and improve profitability.
  • Research & Development Costs: PPG Industries, Inc. invests heavily in research and development to develop new products and improve existing ones. The costs associated with research and development include salaries, equipment, and facilities expenses.
  • Sales & Marketing Costs: The company incurs costs associated with marketing its products, including advertising, promotional activities, sponsorships, and events. It also has sales costs such as salaries, commissions, and travel expenses incurred by its sales team.
  • Distribution Costs: PPG Industries, Inc. has costs associated with the distribution of its products, including transportation, warehousing, and logistics expenses. It aims to optimize its supply chain to reduce these costs and improve delivery times.
  • Administrative Costs: The company has general administrative costs, including salaries for its management team, legal fees, and insurance expenses. It aims to optimize these costs to improve profitability.

PPG Industries, Inc. aims to control costs across all aspects of its business to reduce its overall cost structure and improve profitability. The company continuously evaluates its cost structure to identify areas where it can reduce expenses and increase efficiency. By managing costs effectively, the company can enhance its competitive position in the global coatings and specialty materials industry.

Revenue Streams

PPG generates revenue from the following sources:

  • Sale of Paint and Coatings: PPG's primary source of revenue is the sale of its paint and coating products. These products are sold to various industries, including automotive, aerospace, construction, and industrial markets.
  • Administrative and Consulting Services: PPG offers administrative and consulting services to clients in various industries. These services include technical support, product training, and customized solutions to meet clients' unique needs.
  • Licensing and Royalties: PPG generates revenue through licensing of its patents, trademarks, and technology to third-party companies. These licensing and royalty agreements are based on negotiated terms between PPG and its clients.
  • Joint Ventures and Partnerships: PPG collaborates with other companies on joint ventures and partnerships, which generate revenue through shared profits and equity interests in the venture. Joint ventures and partnerships may involve the development and commercialization of new products or services, or the provision of technical support and consulting services to clients.
  • Warranties and Maintenance Services: PPG offers warranties and maintenance services for its products to ensure customer satisfaction and retention. These services generate additional revenue and can increase customer loyalty and repeat business.


PPG Industries, Inc. is a globally recognized company that has been providing innovative solutions for the coatings, chemicals, and glass industries for over 135 years. Through the Business Model Canvas, we have analyzed PPG's value proposition, customer segments, distribution channels, and revenue streams, among other key elements that define their business model.

One crucial aspect of PPG's success is their ability to adapt to changes in the market and their customers' needs through continuous innovation. The company invests heavily in research and development to create sustainable and environmentally friendly products, always seeking to deliver value to their customers.

Another key factor is PPG's focus on building strong relationships with their customers, providing a wide range of products and services that cater to their specific needs. Through strategic partnerships and collaborations with other industry leaders, PPG has been able to expand its reach and deliver more value to its customers.

In conclusion, PPG Industries, Inc. has a strong business model that has served them well for over a century. With a focus on innovation, customer relationships, and strategic partnerships, they are well-positioned to continue delivering value to their customers and staying at the forefront of their industry.

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What is PPG Industries competitive advantage? ›

PPG enjoys a number of competitive advantages. It operates in the paints & coatings industry, which is economically attractive for several reasons. First, these products have high-profit margins for manufacturers. They also have low capital investment, which results in significant cash flow.

What does PPG Industries Inc do? ›

PPG is a global manufacturer of paints, coatings, and specialty materials and a Fortune 200 company with headquarters in Pittsburgh and operations in nearly 70 countries around the world.

What is PPG stand for? ›

PPG Industries
FormerlyPittsburgh Plate Glass Company (1883–1968)
Traded asNYSE: PPG S&P 500 Component
Founded1883 Creighton, Pennsylvania, U.S.
14 more rows

What are PPG Industries goals? ›

Develop innovative products to meet future needs. Work safely, protect the environment and support the communities where we operate. Achieve superior shareholder returns.

What are three major competitive advantages? ›

The three main types of competitive advantage are differentiation, cost advantages, and focus advantages.

Who is PPG Industries competitor? ›

Competitor comparison
  • Sherwin-Williams Co Headquarters. United States of America. No. of employees. 61,626. ...
  • Akzo Nobel NV Headquarters. Netherlands. No. of employees. 35,600. ...
  • Nippon Paint Holdings Co Ltd Headquarters. Japan. No. of employees. 30,247. ...
  • Axalta Coating Systems Ltd Headquarters. United States of America. No. of employees.

How does PPG make money? ›

engages in the manufacture and distribution of coatings, specialty materials, and glass products. It operates through Performance Coatings and Industrial Coatings segments.

Is PPG an ethical company? ›

At PPG, we hold ourselves to a very high standard of integrity and professional conduct. Our company's reputation for being an ethical and respectful company with which to do business, wherever we operate, is a crucial competitive advantage.

What company owns PPG? ›

PPG Industries Inc (NYSE:PPG)

Institutional investors hold a majority ownership of PPG through the 83.10% of the outstanding shares that they control. This interest is also higher than at almost any other company in the Industrial Specialties industry.

What does PPG stand for and what do they make? ›

The company, whose name stands for Pittsburgh Plate Glass, is selling the last of its fiberglass business to Nippon Electric Glass Co.

What does PPG mean marketing? ›

PPG is previous period growth that it means particular period sales of products, as the example sales of specific product say from January to June of year. MAT is maybe last year or last of 2 years and so on, but major companies prefer to be for 5 years.

What does PPG stand for in manufacturing? ›

Reflecting its diversification, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company changes its name to PPG Industries. As a bonus, the company reaches $1 billion in sales. A result of its diversification, growth and increasingly global presence, the company changed its name to PPG Industries in 1968.

What is the background of PPG company? ›

Founded in 1883 As a Plate Glass Manufacturer

Ford and John Pitcairn created the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company (PPG) in 1883. The first financially successful U.S. plate glass manufacturer, the company was located in Creighton, Pennsylvania, northeast of Pittsburgh. It moved its headquarters to Pittsburgh in 1895.

What are the four 4 strategies for competitive advantage? ›

The four primary methods of gaining a competitive advantage are cost leadership, differentiation, defensive strategies and strategic alliances.

What are the three 3 competitive business strategies? ›

According to Porter's Generic Strategies model, there are three basic strategic options available to organizations for gaining competitive advantage. These are: Cost Leadership, Differentiation and Focus.

What are the five 5 factors of competitive advantage? ›

Competitive advantages are attributed to a variety of factors including cost structure, branding, the quality of product offerings, the distribution network, intellectual property, and customer service.

Who is the most popular PPG? ›

The Most Popular Paint Colors
  • Delicate White PPG1001-1.
  • Commercial White PPG1025-1.
  • Gypsum PPG1006-1.
  • Silver Feather PPG1002-1.
  • Cavalry PPG1041-7.
  • Admiralty PPG1042-7.
  • Mirror Mirror PPG1039-3.
  • Chalky Blue PPG1153-5.

Is PPG a Home Depot brand? ›

PPG announced the extension of its partnership with The Home Depot and HD Supply to provide a wide range of professional PPG paint products and services geared exclusively for professional customers.

What market sector is PPG in? ›

Consumer Discretionary

How much debt does PPG Industries have? ›

PPG Industries Debt to Equity Ratio 2010-2022 | PPG

The debt/equity ratio can be defined as a measure of a company's financial leverage calculated by dividing its long-term debt by stockholders' equity. PPG Industries debt/equity for the three months ending December 31, 2022 was 0.97.

How often does PPG get paid? ›

Weekly, through the contract agency.

How many people are employed by PPG? ›

PPG Industries: Number of Employees 2010-2022 | PPG

PPG Industries total number of employees in 2022 was 52,000, a 89.09% increase from 2021. PPG Industries total number of employees in 2021 was 27,500, a 4.17% increase from 2020.

What is the disadvantage of PPG? ›

Drawbacks or disadvantages of PPG sensor

It can not measure blood pressure. ➨It relies on ECG signal as reference for HR measurement. ➨PPG sensor requires long settling time than ECG sensor. ➨It consumer more power (~30mW) than ECG sensor (~2.5 mW) during operation.

What is the reliability of PPG? ›

The PPG-accuracy, defined as the proportion of PPG measurements within 100 ms of ECG measurements, was 94.6% (95%CI 94.1–95.1). The accuracy within 50 ms range was 89.2% (95%CI 88.5–89.9). Correlation was high for HR (R = 0.991 (95%CI 0.988–0.993), n = 180) (Fig. 2A).

Does PPG test on animals? ›

PPG is equally committed to conducting animal testing in the most humane manner available and in a manner that addresses the social and behavioral needs of the animals.

Who is the biggest paint company in the world? ›

The largest paint company in the world: Sherwin-Williams

As the world's largest paints and coatings company, based on revenue, Sherwin-Williams is comprised of three segments: the Americas Group, Consumer Brands Group, and Performance Coatings Group.

Is PPG doing business in Russia? ›

Due to the inability to sustainably operate at even the bare minimum, PPG Industries has made the decision to activate options to exit Russia, including a possible sale or controlled exit from the Russian market.
June 22, 2022Tikkurila leaves Russia
April 28, 2022The head of the Lipetsk region promised to support PPG
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Is PPG a good stock? ›

Out of 12 analysts, 5 (41.67%) are recommending PPG as a Strong Buy, 1 (8.33%) are recommending PPG as a Buy, 5 (41.67%) are recommending PPG as a Hold, 1 (8.33%) are recommending PPG as a Sell, and 0 (0%) are recommending PPG as a Strong Sell. If you're new to stock investing, here's how to buy Ppg Industries stock.

What is the introduction of PPG? ›

Introduction. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive method for measuring blood volume changes in a microvascular bed of the skin based on optical properties, such as absorption, scattering, and transmission properties of human body composition under a specific light wavelength (Challoner, 1979).

What is PPG in healthcare? ›

Photoplethysmography (PPG) is an examination comparable to the ankle-brachial index except that it uses a very tiny blood pressure cuff around the toe and a PPG sensor (infrared light to evaluate blood flow near the surface of the skin) to record waveforms and blood pressure measurements.

What is PPG promoted price group? ›

Promoted Price: The price consumers pay for a product during a sale period. Promoted Product Group (PPG): When a set of Universal Product Codes (UPCs) are priced and marketed together – usually to promote items of a similar size.

What are the demographics of PPG Industries? ›

Demographics By Department

PPG is a male-dominated company. 71% of PPG employees are male and 29% of PPG employees are female. The most common race/ethnicity at PPG is White. 64% of employees at PPG are White.

What competitive advantage does Procter and Gamble have? ›

Procter & Gamble uses differentiation as its generic strategy for competitive advantage. Differentiation involves developing the uniqueness of the business and its products to attract target customers. In this case, Procter & Gamble highlights quality and value in its consumer goods.

What is an example of competitive advantage in industry? ›

Competitive Advantage in the Marketplace

Three notable examples are: Walmart: Walmart excels in a cost leadership strategy. The company offers “Always Low Prices” through economies of scale and the best available prices of a good. Apple: Apple uses a differentiation strategy to appeal to its consumer base.

What has competitive advantage in industry? ›

Competitive advantages are attributed to a variety of factors including cost structure, branding, the quality of product offerings, the distribution network, intellectual property, and customer service.

What are five competitive advantages? ›

The five competitive strategies are: cost leadership, differentiation, innovation, growth, and alliance. Meanwhile, information systems could be a critical enabler of these five competitive strategies.

What makes P&G different from its competitors? ›

Proctor and Gamble differentiate itself from competitors by offering branded consumer product goods with distinct features and attributes. This business strategy implies that P&G focuses on increasing the perceived value created for customers, which allows it to charge premium prices.

Who are Procter and Gamble's top three competitors? ›

Major competitors for P&G include Colgate-Palmolive, Church and Dwight, and Unilever.

What are the pros and cons of P&G company? ›

Pros: Divesting brands, strong management, long-time dividend growth. Cons: Strong dollar, slowing EPS growth, high valuation, higher interest rates. Strong case for holding off on a new position.

What are the 4 types of competitive advantage? ›

The four primary methods of gaining a competitive advantage are cost leadership, differentiation, defensive strategies and strategic alliances.

What companies have the biggest competitive advantage? ›

U.S. companies with a strong competitive advantage
RankCompanyROE (%)
1Merck & Co. Inc.47.7
2Aon PLC87.1
3McDonald's Corp.92,800.0
4Vertex Pharma.36.1
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Apr 25, 2022

How do you identify a business competitive advantage? ›

Three examples of a competitive advantage
  1. Technologies. Technologies used by the company to produce a product, to manage customer relations or to improve internal relationships can be considered a competitive advantage. ...
  2. Brand awareness. As a competitive advantage, you can also rely on brand awareness. ...
  3. Customer service.

What is a company's competitive strategy to succeed? ›

For a company's competitive strategy to succeed in delivering good performance and the intended competitive edge over rivals, it has to be well-matched to a company's internal situation and underpinned by an appropriate set of resources, know-how, and competitive capabilities.

What is a good competitive advantage? ›

To be successful, a company's competitive advantage must generate value for its stakeholders and be difficult for others to reproduce. Companies could have a variety of competitive advantages, including: Cost structure. Product quality.

What is a simple example of competitive advantage? ›

For example, if a company advertises a product for a price that's lower than a similar product from a competitor, that company is likely to have a competitive advantage. The same is true if the advertised product costs more, but offers unique features that customers are willing to pay for.

What are the two major types of competitive advantage? ›

Types of Competitive Advantage. The major types of competitive advantages include: Cost competitive strategy. Focused differentiation strategy.


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